Urbanism of open spaces

Back

Landscape, leisure and production

Date:
27.03.14
Municipality:
Santa Coloma de Gramenet
Venue:
Auditori Can Roig i Torres

Second Workshop

L2 Metro
TMB-Metro Station Artigues / Sant Adrià
L1 Metro
TMB-Metro Station Santa Coloma
Línies Bus
Information on diferent bus lines at the end of the page.

Urbanism of open spaces: landscape, leisure and production


Ever since the approval of the Metropolitan General Plan (PGM) in the seventies, open spaces have taken on an increasingly prominent role in our cities. If back then they were defended as elements of protection and preservation, today they are asserted as spaces of leisure, as valuable places of unique production and, especially, an essential part of the metropolitan landscape. Natural parks, rivers, green corridors, gardens and urban parks, beaches, the coastline…they are all key elements for the quality of metropolitan Barcelona.

This second workshop served to present and discuss the concepts and instruments used to develop open spaces, with the goal that the metropolitan Urban Master Plan may find an adequate synthesis of the concerns of urban ecology, the environment and large-scale landscape.

The presentations and panels focused on discussing: the role open spaces should play in the metropolitan Urban Master Plan (PDU), with specific references to the issues and opportunities surrounding these spaces; also the activities, management and regulations that are most convenient for land which can not be developed; and identifying the existing civic structures and appraise the capacity of green infrastructures to improve the relationship between consolidated fabrics and open spaces.

Workshop programme:






DEBATE 1  The role of open spaces in territorial mosaci of the AMB. Friction and disturbance
Xavier Mayor
, biologist, specialist in environmental ecology and strategic planning
Reporter: Maria Goula, landscape Architect, Director UPC landscaping Master

The interpretation of so-called open spaces has undergone considerable change over the last decade. The introduction of concepts, ideas and visions from landscape or territorial ecology, even in urban spaces, has open a whole range of possibilities of approach from this discipline to a wider understanding of open spaces and, consequently, better planning and management.

The classic approximation to so-called undevelopable land (SNU) is now obsolete and outdated, and is a hindrance to more innovative and efficient planning projects; it therefore must be overcome. In view of the ecological essence of open spaces, approaching them from applied ecology better and more strongly resolves their strategic, ecological environmental and productive values, so that more solid decisions can be made about the capability of these spaces to welcome activities —new activities. This is especially so if the objective is that the things put on it fit in better and generate more assets, while maintaining the ecosystem values and services they provide.

This new approach makes it necessary to determine the strategic, structural and functional values of the different parts making up open spaces. Doing so will enable us to better define activities that are compatible, a key aspect when facing the challenge of a territorial transformation that requires, and more and more each day, redefining the possible activities that can take place. This gives us greater capacity to consistently approach the friction and disturbance that our kind of activity causes in this type of space, especially in the metropolitan context.

Maria Goula
The reporter of the debate, Maria Goula, is PhD Architect at UPC and Master in Landscape Architecture. She is now Assistant Director of International Relations at ETSAB, Director of UPC Landscaping Master and Lecturer at the Urban and Regional Planning Department.


DEBATE 2  Activities in open spaces. Leisure and recreation. Agriculture
Antoni Farrero
, Forestry engineer, AMB infrastructures coordinator
Reporter: Marc Montlleó, Biologist and Director BR Environmental Projects

En aquesta ponència s'analitza la gestió i l'evolució dels diferents tipus d'espais oberts metropolitans des de l'aprovació del Pla General Metropolita. Es fa una especial referència al canvis produïts en la concepció d'aquests espais dins dels estaments tècnics i científics en els darrers anys i s'estudien els diferents factors que han propiciat el canvi de paradigma.

Per aquesta anàlisi ens recolzem en l'experiència de l'AMB  com a institució que ha assumit un paper central en la gestió de l'espai públic metropolità. Així l'AMB disposa d'un bagatge de més de vint-i-cinc anys en la gestió directa de la xarxa de parcs i platges metropolitanes i també ha  estat l'impulsor del planejament  i la gestió de projectes territorials d'envergadura com són el del Parc de Collserola els darrers projectes desenvolupats a l'espai fluvial del Llobregat o el planejament del Parc Agrari.

També es tracta de la problemàtica generada a l'entorn de les activitats agrícoles, forestals i de lleure com a motors, per una banda, de la dinàmica del coneixement i conservació dels espais oberts i com a generadores d'impactes i pertorbacions, per una altra. Tot plegat ens fa encarar el repte d'un nou planejament dels espais oberts amb l'objectiu de maximitzar-ne les utilitats socials i d'us públic d'una forma equilibrada amb els requeriments econòmics i ambientals.

Marc Montlleó
The reporter Marc Montlleó is biologist (University of Barcelona) and Master in Environmental Engineer (Institut Català de Tecnologia / UPC).







DEBATE 3 Open spaces and property system. Undevelopable land regulation
Pablo Molina
, Lawyer, specialist in urban planning and environmental law
Reporter: Carles Castell, biologist, manager Territorial Planning and Analysis Office, Barcelona Provincial Council

Els espais lliures en l'Àrea Metropolitana són elements d'una gestió complicada. D'una banda, tenen un valor essencial per l'entorn de l'AMB, que va molt més enllà de la seva configuració de simple espai buit i que, per llur complexitat haurien de ser objecte de polítiques positives en conseqüència.

El propi disseny del PGM confirma aquesta relació tan important. No debades els espais lliures es configuren en aquest instrument amb vocació global prescindint de la delimitació municipal preestablerta. I, no obstant aquesta essencialitat, la gestió dels espais lliures es fonamenta una vegada més en polítiques de no fer i en l'aplicació de l'article 47 de la Llei d'Urbanisme com a barem d'actuacions.

Un bon exemple de la distància entre el rol fonamental dels espais lliures i la seva realitat es pot trobar en la dinàmica d'adquisició dels espais lliures destinats a zones verdes públiques que comporta la subjecció dels municipis de forma individualitzada a un risc econòmic importantíssim (en estimacions de l'AMB, 36 milions d'euros per l'any 2013).
És imperatiu que el PDU reflexioni sobre els instruments jurídics, econòmics i urbanístics per dotar als espais lliures de la seva veritable naturalesa de sistema metropolità. Dimensionar correctament el valor que aporten aquests espais en sòl no urbanitzable i flexibilitzar llur configuració en sòl urbà hauria de permetre una nova aproximació, més coherent amb llur importància.

Carles Castell
The reporter Carles Castell is PhD in Biology and holds a Master in Environmental Management in Rural Areas and a Master in Managerial Functions.






DEBATE 4  Green civic structures in metropolitan complexes
Maria Rubert,
architect and professor of Urban Planning ETSAB-UPC
Reporter: Antoni Alarcón, biologist, Manager Consorci del Besòs

Open spaces aren't the remains or leftovers of a built city, but spaces for opportunities and for modernising metropolises. Intermediate-sized open spaces give the Urban Master Plan (Pla Director Urbanístic, PDU) a chance to establish new connecting structures, new areas of work that combine and give meaning to what in previous planning was broken up into streets, green and facilities.

The needs of the metropolis change and making variable use of large empty spaces can provide answers to questions in the future. These spaces for cohabitation must make it possible in the future to consider new connections between infrastructures on different scales, thoroughly rethink energy alternatives and favour active and productive uses linked to contemporary forms of leisure –which are compatible with new forms of farming, stock breeding or forestry. Open spaces of intermediate size must allow the insertion of a new compromise structure of open spaces that establish new connections in the metropolitan continuum.

Ideas on usage and, above all, the role of open spaces in the contemporary city have changed. We need to look on them and think of them as spaces for opportunities, but also as blank spaces ready for unforeseen uses. This approach must necessarily tackle different scales and commitments: necessarily more fluid and less static spaces, which doesn't mean they are legally less precise, but necessarily ‘open' to new environmental contingencies and requirements.

Planning in the 20th century often made the construction of large roads and large empty green spaces the general argument behind the design and strategy (ring roads, fingers, wedges, new meshes) that were used to design the new profile of capital cities. In the 21st century we can imagine new, less abstract arguments that design future strategies for the metropolis –which already has a considerable degree of complexity and compactness–, necessarily on different scales. On one hand, those connected with the geographic structure and ecological criteria and, on the other, those relating to opportunities for connecting facilities, avenues and open spaces, to transform weakly-structured situations.


Antoni Alarcón
The reporter Antoni Alarcón is the General Manager of Consorci del Besòs. He also works in different metropolitan subjects, such as the drafting of Pla especial del Parc Natural de Collserola.
The process of writing the first draft of the PDU has an online space to continue the debates begun at the workshops. The contributions are transferred to the reporters of the debates.

Access to experts' network

Executive Summary
PDU reflections gathers visions and opinions expressed by different experts on the future of urban planning in the metropolitan area of Barcelona.


PDU Reflections

Location

Getting there
Transport nearby...